Thursday, 16 June 2016


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With youth unemployment still at high levels, many of today’s young people are getting off to a slow start in the job market, a situation that may well translate into lower lifetime earnings. At the other end of the age spectrum is a growing number of retirees who, under the current system, will be consuming an increasing proportion of the nation’s output. This twin tension is not unique to the United States; it is a hallmark of most advanced economies. As nations struggle to figure out how to adjust or pay for existing pension systems, they should also focus on policies to help improve the employment and earning potential of their younger workers.
Many of today’s young people are getting off to a slow start in the job market, a situation that may well translate into lower lifetime earnings.

The recession lingers for many young people . . .

The US labor market got off to a solid start in 2015 on the heels of robust growth in 2014. However, even as employment rises and the unemployment rate falls, not all participants in the economy are benefiting to the same degree. In particular, the youngest participants in the labor force generally continue to experience high levels of unemployment—much higher than might be expected if the historic differential with the older age groups had continued to hold. This is worrisome, as research shows that spells of unemployment early in one’s career can have a negative impact on lifetime earnings.
Similar to those in other age groups, many younger workers experienced a drop in labor force participation during the recession, with the reduction being very pronounced among the very youngest. Just prior to the recession, the labor force participation rate among those aged 16–19 (that is, the proportion of this age group working or looking for work) was 44 percent. During the recovery, the labor force participation rate for this group stabilized at 34 percent—a 10-percentage-point decline from its prior level. Among those aged 20–24, the decline was not as dramatic; the labor force participation rate in this group fell from 74.5 percent pre-recession to 71 percent post-recession, a decline on a par with that experienced by the labor force as a whole.1
One of the recession’s only positive aspects was that poor job prospects contributed to an increase in the number of young people choosing to continue their education rather than join the labor force. The percent of high school students that graduated reached an all-time high of 81 percent in the 2012–2013 school year, an increase from 79 percent in the 2010–2011 school year.2 Postsecondary enrollment also increased: Between 2007 and 2012, the proportion of 18- to 24-year-olds enrolled in a postsecondary institution increased from 38.8 percent to 41.0 percent, with the gain coming from increased enrollment in two-year institutions, which rose from 10.9 percent to 12.7 percent. (The percent of 18- to 24-year-olds enrolled in four-year institutions remained steady at 28 percent.3) This increased investment in education and training will likely benefit both the individuals receiving the education in the form of higher future earnings, and the US economy in the form of higher productivity—provided there are jobs available that need the skills acquired.
It is not unusual for unemployment rates to be higher for those under 25 than for those aged 25 and over. Rather, this has been the case since at least 1948, when the US government began to keep track. What is notable is that the difference in employment rates between younger and older individuals—which has historically been relatively constant—is growing, according to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. As shown in figure 1, over the course of the last two business cycles (from July 1990 through December 2007), unemployment rates for the two youngest cohorts maintained a stable relationship with the unemployment rates for those 25 and older: The unemployment rate for those aged 16–19 averaged 12.2 percentage points above the unemployment rate for those aged 25 and over, while unemployment rates among those aged 20–24 averaged 4.8 percentage points above those aged 25 and over. Since the beginning of the recession in December 2007, however, the employment rate differential between those aged 16–19 and those aged 25 and over has averaged 16.2 percentage points—four percentage points higher than before the recession. And although not as pronounced, the unemployment gap between those aged 20–24 and those aged 25 and over has also increased, to 6.6 percentage points in the current cycle.
What is notable is that the difference in employment rates between younger and older individuals—which has historically been relatively constant—is growing, according to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Figure 1
Given the 20- to 24-year-old cohort’s high labor force participation rate, their higher unemployment rate since 2007 has resulted in a significant increase in the number of unemployed between the ages of 20 and 24 (figure 2), which peaked at 2.6 million and is currently 1.6 million—a number still well above the average level in the prior two expansions. Further, it is only because of decreased labor force participation that the number of unemployed among those aged 16–19 is once again at the pre-recession level. It is key that those in that group who are currently not in the labor force because they are pursuing continued education will have job opportunities when they do enter the labor market.
Figure 2
This increase in the gap in unemployment rates between age cohorts does not bode well for the future earnings of affected members of the youngest age groups. New analysis by Deloitte shows that young people who experience a substantial period of unemployment early in their careers are on a lower income trajectory than those without longer breaks in employment. The latest National Longitudinal Survey of Youth conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics has followed a representative sample of American youths born between 1980 and 1984 since 1997 (when the youths were 12–16 years old). The most recently released data covers 2011–2012, when the participants were between the ages of 27 and 31. During the 14 years between 1997 and 2011, 68 percent of those in the sample experienced a period of unemployment of at least six weeks. A comparison of the current average earnings of those who had experienced a period of unemployment of six weeks or more with those who had not been unemployed, or who had been unemployed for a shorter period, shows that those experiencing a longer stint of unemployment have significantly lower average weekly earnings: $402 to $487—or a difference of just over $4,000 per year.4 If high levels of youth unemployment remain the norm, then average earnings for the population as a whole will be depressed as these younger cohorts age and more of the population is composed of those who have had substantial periods of unemployment early in their work lives.

. . . As clouds gather at the other end of the age spectrum

The employment and earning travails of those at the younger end of the workforce are cause for concern because many of the young people affected by the depth and length of the recession will likely be on a lower lifetime income trajectory than if they had come of age at an earlier time. However, the public policy concern becomes decidedly more acute when this fact is paired with the growing number of retirees that many of America’s younger workers will be helping to support.
With the Baby Boomers entering retirement, the 65-and-over age group is growing rapidly. In just the five years between 2015 and 2020, the number of people in this age group will increase by 17 percent—from 48 million to 56 million. By 2050, when those who are now 24 years old turn 65, the 65-and-over age group will total 87 million. In percentage terms, those aged 65 and over currently represent 14.8 percent of the US population. By 2055, that proportion will increase to 21.3 percent.5
At present, 90 percent of those 65 and older receive Social Security payments and qualify for Medicare.6 When the oldest members of the 16–24 age group turn 65 in 2055, these two programs are projected to consume 12.2 percent of GDP, up from the current 7.9 percent.7
Both Social Security and Medicare are financed through payroll taxes. Payroll taxes for each program are deposited into separate trust funds. When payroll taxes in a given year are not sufficient to pay all benefits due, the trustees draw from the balances accumulated in the trust funds in earlier years when the taxes coming in exceeded the benefit payments going out. Because of the faster growth in the number of retirees compared with the number of workers, payments being made from these funds have exceeded taxes paid in since 2010. Under current projections, the Medicare Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund will not have sufficient funds to make full payments beginning in 2030, and the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Trust Funds will be unable to make full payments beginning in 2033.8
Because of their funding mechanism, a standard way of considering the programs’ costs and income is as a percentage of taxable payroll. At present, the OASDI costs 14.0 percent of taxable payroll, which for this program includes earnings up to $117,000. Because of this cap, the tax burden of the OASDI falls more heavily on lower-income earners, as income above $117,000 is not subject to this tax. However, OASDI payroll taxes and interest income only bring in an amount equal to 12.7 percent of payroll. With costs higher than income, the difference is made up by using the accumulated assets in the OASDI Trust Funds. By 2055, OASDI’s costs will have risen to an amount equal to 17.0 percent of payroll, while its income will have risen to only 13.2 percent of payroll. Meanwhile, while Medicare costs and income are currently virtually identical at 3.4 percent and 3.3 percent, respectively, its costs will equal 5.2 percent of payroll by 2055, while its expected income will only be 3.9 percent.9
Taken together, these two programs are projected to cost 22.2 percent of taxable payroll when the oldest of the current 16- to 24-year-old cohort begins to retire, up from 17.4 percent currently. However, the programs’ income will rise only slightly from the current 15.0 percent of taxable income, to 17.1 percent. This means that there will likely still be a sizable amount to make up, equal to just over 5 percent of taxable payroll. If the challenges are not addressed, the trust funds will be depleted in 15 years, causing the need for payroll taxes to rise or benefits to be reduced.
If the challenges are not addressed, the trust funds will be depleted in 15 years, causing the need for payroll taxes to rise or benefits to be reduced.

A transatlantic conundrum

The United States is not the only country facing the confluence of these two trends. High youth unemployment amid an aging population is a transatlantic phenomenon, affecting not only the United States but also Canada and most of the countries in the European Union. And as problematic as the situation is in the United States, the challenge may be even more immediate and severe in other countries.
The “great recession” impacted individual countries’ employment situation to different degrees, and the relative speed of recovery has also been highly variable. Of the countries shown in figure 3, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States, and Canada all had overall unemployment rates between 1.0 to 2.5 percent higher in 2013 than in 2007. However, when one considers youth unemployment rates, the difference is substantially greater: Excluding Italy (which has a 19-percentage-point differential), youth unemployment in this set of countries is between 2.7 and 6.0 percentage points higher than its pre-recession level. Most of the other countries in Europe also follow this pattern. Germany and Japan stand alone among the larger industrialized nations in having had both their overall unemployment and youth unemployment rates return to or fall below their pre-recession rates. Brazil is included in figure 3 to illustrate the success that some emerging markets have had in bringing down not only overall unemployment, which fell from 8.1 percent in 2007 to 5.9 percent in 2013, but also youth unemployment.
Figure 3
When looking at the other end of the age spectrum, the next 35 years will see a sharp rise in the number of retirees that each of the economies in figure 3 will need to support, as shown in figure 4. Even though youth unemployment is not a particular problem in Germany and Japan, their populations are aging far more rapidly than those of other countries. Both countries currently have 32 retirees for every 100 people of working age (that is, those aged 15 to 64); by 2050, that proportion will rise to 53 to 100 in Germany and 82 to 100 in Japan. The countries with high youth unemployment shown in figure 3 above will also have much larger retiree populations to support in 2050, although the rise in the proportion of retirees to working-age individuals will not be as dramatic as in Germany and Japan.
Figure 4
As shown in figure 5, the 34 countries that comprise the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) pay varying amounts to support their retiree populations, ranging from around 2 percent of GDP in Mexico, Iceland, and Korea to more than 13 percent in Greece, Austria, France, and Italy. The United States comes in just below the OECD average. Given the substantial rise in the number of retirees these economies will need to support in coming years, the cost of pensions (public and private), which is already very high in some countries, will likely increase even more.
Figure 5

A question of generational equity

The severity and the duration of the most recent recession fundamentally reshaped the lives of many across the globe. In the United States, the number of unemployed surpassed 15 million,10 home foreclosures skyrocketed, and significant wealth accumulated through home equity and stocks was lost. Many younger members of the labor market were hit particularly hard, and even as the recovery picks up steam, their job prospects often remain muted. If the high rate of unemployment among young adults continues to follow them across their work lives, permanently depressing their earnings, addressing the funding conundrum of retiree pension and health care will be even more difficult than otherwise. In such a case, those with lessened prospects for income will be asked to support an ever-growing number of retirees—many of whom may have had opportunities for success not as widely available to the current cohort of young workers. This raises a question of generational equity: How much is fair to ask from today’s younger people to help support their elders? Now is the time to consider strategies to cope with this new world situation, before today’s young people become additions to the growing population of retirees.
This raises a question of generational equity: How much is fair to ask from today’s younger people to help support their elders? Now is the time to consider strategies to cope with this new world situation, before today’s young people become additions to the growing population of retirees.


View all endnotes
  1. Total labor force participation was 66 percent prior to the recession and has held steady at just under 63 percent for most of the last 12 months (Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Current population survey”).Back to article
  2. Since 2010, states, districts, and schools have been using a new common metric—the adjusted cohort graduation rate—to standardize the collection of graduation data (US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, “Common core of data tables,” February 12, 2015, to article
  3. US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, “Digest of education, 2013,” table 302.60, to article
  4. Analysis by Ritika Choudhary of Deloitte is unpublished, but available on request. Additional background on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth can be found at to article
  5. US Census Bureau, 2012 national population tables, table 2, December 18, 2014, to article
  6. Social Security Administration, “Social Security basic facts,” April 2, 2014, to article
  7. Congressional Budget Office, “The 2014 long-term budget outlook,” July 2014, to article
  8. Trustees of the Social Security Trust Funds, Status of the Social Security and Medicare Programs: A summary of the 2014 annual reports, 2014 to article
  9. Ibid.Back to article
  10. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Current population survey.”Back to article


Dr. Patricia Buckley

Patricia Buckley started at Deloitte in September 2012 as the director for economic policy and analysis with responsibility for researching, framing, and developing the external strategic messaging for Deloitte’s US CEO. Buckley is an expert in critically assessing and synthesizing complex data for the purpose of informing public policy debates at the highest levels of government and business.

Tuesday, 7 June 2016

penguin megaphone
While Ubuntu focuses on convergence -- smartphones and tablets -- Fedora seems comfortable with the desktop, server, and cloud. You know what? That is not a bad thing. There are far too many Linux distributions nowadays, and if they all started focusing on a "Swiss Army" strategy with mobile device types, things would get messy. I find Fedora's narrower view refreshing.

Today, the Fedora Project announces that version 24 of the operating system achieves Beta status. If you have never tried the Linux-based OS, I urge you to give it a go. If my recommendation doesn't do it for you, please know that it is the operating system of choice for Linus Torvalds -- father of Linux.
"We're pleased to announce that Fedora 24, the latest version of the Fedora operating system, is now available in beta. The Fedora Project is a global community that works together to lead the advancement of free and open source software. As part of the community’s mission the project delivers three editions, each one a free, Linux-based operating system tailored to meet specific use cases: Fedora 24 Cloud Beta, Fedora 24 Server Beta, and Fedora 24 Workstation Beta", says Matthew Miller, Fedora Project Leader.

Miller further says, "each edition is built from a common set of base packages, which form the core foundation of Fedora 24 Beta. In addition to minor bug fixes and package tweaks, Fedora 24 Beta’s foundational packages include glibc 2.23 for better performance and improvements to POSIX compliance (and backwards compatibility to Fedora 23) and GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) 6. All base packages have been rebuilt with GCC 6, providing better code optimization across all Fedora 24 Beta editions".

The workstation version -- the one most home users will target -- offers GNOME 3.20 preview as a desktop environment. While other environments will be available too, I urge folks to try GNOME first. It has improved leaps and bounds over the years, becoming my choice for best UI of any operating system.
Wayland is available as preview, but not default. The display server protocol is still poised to replace X, but it will not yet be ready for Fedora 24. The team explains that it should be ready for "future versions". Whether that means version 25 will get Wayland as default remains to be seen.
If you are ready to download it, you can get it here. The download links are not yet live, but keep checking back as they will be available very soon.
Image Credit: Bobboz / Shutterstock

Thursday, 2 June 2016

Re-post from George Roter’s blog, “Reinventing Mozilla on Campus” .
Throughout history, University students, staff and professors have often shaped the leading edge of change and innovation. The history of the web is no different: the student-built Lynx browser was one of the first and Mosaic (Firefox’s distant ancestor!), pioneered by students and staff, opened the graphical web to millions.
I saw the impact that students and professors can make through my own experience at Engineers Without Borders Canada. Engineering students and professors on campuses across Canada and in Africa built remarkable ventures, reshaped curriculum, changed on-campus and government policy, and taught hundreds of thousands of young people about global development.
I fully believe in the potential of students, staff and professors on campuses around the world to have massive impact on Mozilla’s mission. As innovators, contributors and open web advocates. Engineers, scientists, lawyers, social scientists, economists and designers.
From what I know about my past experience and have heard in the past year working for Mozilla, our mission resonates tremendously with students and professors. The range of impact and involvement is considerable. Until now, we’ve only just scraped the surface of this potential.

We need to reinvent Mozilla on campus.
Our existing engagement on University campuses around the world is an assortment of largely disconnected programs and people. Firefox Student Ambassadors and Firefox Clubs. Mozilla Clubs. Code contribution by individual contributors. Maker Party. Mozilla Science Lab. Various professor and lab partnerships. Employee recruitment. Many of these are successful in their own right; there’s an opportunity learn from each of them, find connections, and imagine opportunity to scale their impact with a more coordinated approach.

Photo credit: Tanha Islam and Trisa Islam
The largest of these by student involvement, Firefox Student Ambassadors (FSAs) and Firefox Clubs, has been constrained by limited and variable employee support and a focus on marketing. Our student leaders have already been “hacking” this program to introduce advocacy, code contribution, support, localization, teaching and many other activities; official support for this has lagged.
Our team came into this year with a key hypothesis as part of our strategy: That we can supercharge participation with a reinvented campus program.

The Take Back the Web campus campaign focused on privacy and security has been our first effort to test this hypothesis. Already it’s showing great promise, with over 600 campus teams signed up (including hundreds of FSAs) to have impact in 3 areas. We’re focused on learning as much as we can from this campaign.

The campus campaign is a step toward reinvention. But I think it’s now time to take a step back to ask: What impact can we imagine with a coordinated effort on campuses around the world? What do students, staff and professors want and need to be involved with Mozilla’s mission? How might we evolve our existing programs? What programs and structures would we design, and how do they relate to one another? How can we invite people on campus to innovate with Mozilla?
These are the broad questions that will guide a process over the next 9 weeks.

 By July 15th we aim to have a clear articulation of the impact we can have, the programs we’ll invest in and how they relate to one another, and the opportunities for students, staff and professors to participate.We’re hoping that this process of reinventing Mozilla on campus will be participatory, and we’re inviting many voices to contribute. Lucy Harris on the Participation Team will be stewarding this process and shaping the final options. Mark Surman, Mitchell Baker, Chris Lawrence, Katharina Borchert and I will be involved in making a final decision on the direction we take.

You can read more about the details of the process in this post, but let me summarize it and the opportunities you have to be involved:
Phase 1: Listening (May 16-27)
→ provide thoughts on existing programs and opportunities you see
Phase 2: Synthesis and options (May 27-June 10)
→ we’ll frame some tensions for you to weigh in on
→ we’ll shape a set of options for conversation during the London All Hands
Phase 3: Final input (June 10-24)
→ we’ll articulate a set of options for you to consider as we move forward, and will be diving deep into these and key questions during the Mozilla All Hands in London
Phase 4: Final Decision and Disseminate (June 24-July 15)
→ we’ll take all the input and decide on a direction for moving forward

Let me finish by reiterating the opportunity. University campuses are a hotbed of innovation and a locus for creating change. Mozilla can tap into this energy and catalyze involvement in unleashing the next wave of openness and opportunity in online life. Finally, our team is excited about helping to shape a direction we can take, and investing in a robust program of participation moving forward.

I’m excited for this journey of reinventing Mozilla on campus.

Friday, 15 April 2016

As we began partnership with Limkokwing University of Creative Technology 2 years ago, Wings Firefox Club, the first officially registered club in Botswana has been hosting some extravagant events under the latter's premises.

April 15 2016 marked one of the most eloquent calendar days as Wings Firefox Club graced the school again in efforts to mobilize the community and grow Mozilla depth in Botswana. The event started with an introductory session by Firefox Student Ambassadors Mentor Oagile Moemi introducing the crowd to what we do in mozilla and the perks of becoming a Firefox Student Ambassador.

The day went on with some exquisite presence of the Founder President of Walking in Your Totality Media Mr. Tshepo Seitei giving the crowd a taste of what the new tech Mozilla movement is the thing to be. This motivational speaker motivated the crowed and wowed them to join Mozilla and kick start their careers at an early stage.

The event went on with Regional Ambassador Lead for the entire African continent Mr. Tshepo Tamajobe giving attendees the depth of how far they can go with Mozilla. This to him was an easy task as he is the most experienced FSA in Botswana and a living testimony that Mozilla can elevate someone's career so much and put them in the global arena. Tshepo Tamajobe started as just an ambassador but through persistence and ambition he went on to lead ambassadors in his school and his excellent leadership skills earned him the right to lead the program all over Africa, and the first Motswana to do so.

this highly anticipated cohort ended up with  signing up 21 new Firefox Student Ambassadors, upgrading of Firefox web browsers and distribution of swag. #MozLove
Oagile Moemi introducing Mozilla
Africa Regional Ambassador Lead Tshepo Tamajobe wowing the crowd
Oagile Moemi assembling swag
Walking in Your Totality Media President Tshepo Seitei motivating the audience
These stickers can't be taller than Tshepo Tamajobe
Oagile Moemi setting the stage
Tshepo Seitei with the crowd
devices switched to Firefox

Wednesday, 17 February 2016

Inspiration by Tshepos

Tshepo Tamajoe

Our first partnership with "Walking In Your Totality" a motivational and inspirational organization founded by Tshepo Seitei kick started with this memorable event. Mozilla Botswana represented by myself Tshepo Tamajobe was invited through our partnership with Walking in your Totality by Mr. Ernest CEO and Founder of a local print company "Emblem Power Creations" to give his employees a brighter side of life.

We began to wow the Emblem Power Creations employee filled event with Founder of Walking in your Totality Mr. Seitei opening the podium with some dream provoking round, motivating the employees to have a more deeper and thoughtful approach to life. He motivated the crowd to act on their deepest desires to success, elaborating that attitude is equal to altitude and that it is not what you think that defines you as a person, but your execution of ideas that puts a name tag on a person's face. He further went on to make a statement and seperate himself from the boys when he wowed the audience by opening insights to his  philosophy that a person's network and net-worth are equal and therefore one should surround themselves with already accomplished people go gain some mentoring edge, making it easy to have insights in to the success world.

Standing tall, labyrinth towering the ground was Tshepo Tamajobe famously known as "The Man From Maun" or "The White Color Man", an ambassador of Mozilla Firefox tenaciously came to wave the latter a better edge and provoked some never before heard round of words. The Mozilla presentation began with some insights on Mozilla's mission of keeping the web open. As the crowd opened their ears to get all the Mozilla data, Mr. Tamajobe began to explain the perceptions about Batswana and technology issues and explain that not everything about Mozilla is a tech prerequisite. He began to explain how he became an ambassador of an American company in the first place, saying it was through his willingness to learn and utilize web resources.

Author: Tshepo Tamajobe
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Wednesday, 12 August 2015

My Experience as a Firefox Student Ambassador

About a year ago I made one of the most phenomenal decisions of my entire life, to join the Firefox Student Ambassador program powered my Mozilla foundation. As an FSA I had grown a lot in terms of Mozilla, its advocacy for an open and decentralized web.

I joined the program through the Mozilla wiki and acquired a lot of skills and knowledge about Mozilla, its products and the web at large. I became a Firefox club lead, the first in Limkokwing University of Creative Technology, in my country and am organizing events which will see me excel in public speaking, increase in my knowledge base and help ascend the skills i acquired to upcoming FSAs and the community at large.
Mozilla Products
Tshepo Tamajobe +Limkokwing University of Creative Technology 
I also got to know that there is more to Mozilla than the Firefox web browser, with products like Firefox OS, Thunderbird, Bugzilla and others I was bound to go above and beyond to join other communities like the user support forum, SUMO which saw me become a Tswana (tn) locale leader, helping users to understand these products. I also had the liberty of joining the local localization team

@Embassy Gaborone, Botswana’s Young African Leaders’ Initiative (#YALI) Network, and Botswana’s Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoESD) held a three-day education reform workshop. This in-service training workshop combines leadership development, mentoring, and networking opportunities for young professional teachers. This workshop helped empower teachers to identify key challenges in their schools and to develop result-oriented projects to address those challenges. #BotswanaYALINetwork will monitor and mentor these teachers while they implement their projects.